Geeky, HackSpace, HACMan, Physics, Science, Work January 16, 2016 Skippy 29 comments

Quick look at the HLK-PM01

HLK-PM01 - Diagram
HLK-PM01 – Diagram

There is a Follow-up post to this one here.

The Hi-Link HLK PM01 is a 100-230 Vac to 5 Vdc 600 mA converter, Bob gave me one a while ago and asked me what my thoughts were on it,

The Manufacturers details are not quite what I would like as a data sheet, and I can’t find a certificate of conformity. however some of an LVD assessment has been performed on it (looking at their tear down the clearance between Primary and Secondary is greater than the requirement).

From the Manufactures spec:

  • Meet UL, CE requirements,
  • All voltage input (AC: 90 ~ 264V)
  • Low ripple and low noise
  • Output overload and short circuit protection
  • High efficiency, high power density
  • The product is designed to meet the requirements of EMC and Safety Test
  • Low power consumption, environmental protection, no-load loss <0.1W
  • Operation Temperature: -20 – +60°C
  • Store Temperature: -40 – +80°C
  • Relative humidity: 5 – 95%
  • Rated input voltage:100-240VAc
  • Maximum input current: <0.2A
  • Input current surge: <10A
  • maximum input voltage: 270VAc
  • Input Low Voltage Efficiency: Vin=110 VAc, Output full-load: 69%
  • Input High Voltage Efficiency: Vin=220 VAc, output full-load: 70%
  • Long-term reliability: MTBF 100000 h
  • Load rated output voltage: +5±0.1
  • Short-term maximum output current: 1000mA
  • The maximum output current for a long time: 600mA
  • Output ripple and noise: 50 mVpp Rated input voltage, full load. Using 20 MHz of bandwidth, the load side with 10 uF and 0.1 uF capacitor
  • Shell maximum surface temperature does not exceed 60 °C

The First line looks impressive, and it’s supposed to, I mean how many people know that that sentence is meaningless! how do you know what the UL, CE requirements it meets if they don’t tell you which standards they applied!

Looking at the unit, and that first line, what would you consider to be the method for use? wire it into the mains and off we go? NO. for starts looking at the GA drawing we can see a problem:

See it? no? the AC input pins are 5 mm apart center to center, which means that it will be difficult to get the required 3 mm clearance between Live and Neutral required for BS EN 60335 – “Household and similar electrical appliances. Safety. General requirements” or any similar standard we wish to use. so right off the bat we have to place some supporting components on the board:

Minimum Supporting components for the HLK-PM01
Minimum Supporting components for the HLK-PM01 Fuse is Farnell part number 2464451 Varistor is Farnell P/N 1004390

For EMC testing I will be loading the HLK PM01 with a 33 Ω resistor, this equates to 0.75 W or 150 mA. the HLK-PM01 is rated for 600 mA (5 Vdc, 3 W).

HLK-PM01 loaded with a 33Ω resistor
HLK-PM01 loaded with a 33 Ω resistor

I have omitted the recommended 10 µF and 0.1 µF capacitors due to my load being purely resistive, and having no capacitive or inductive components (from the manufacture – Output ripple and noise: 50 mVpp Rated input voltage, full load. Using 20 MHz of bandwidth, the load side with 10uF and 0.1uF capacitor). If I was powering a microprocessor or a Raspberry pi, then things would be different.

The tests I performed on this unit were electrical breakdown between Primary and Secondary, Radiated Emissions, and Conducted Emissions. No Immunity testing was performed.

Electrical Breakdown

CLASS II Electric strength - 3.7 kVac (60s)
CLASS II Electric strength – 3.7 kVac (60s)

For this test 3.7 kVac 50 Hz is applied common mode to both the Live and Neutral conductors for 60s, (Standard calls for 3 kVac, however it’s always wise to exceed the standard).

Kikusui TOS 8650 Withstand Voltage Tester
Kikusui TOS 8650 Withstand Voltage Tester

The HLK-PM01 withstood the application of 3.7 kVac for 60 seconds with less than 1 mA leakage current.

Conducted Emissions

The HLK-PM01 was plugged into a LISN (line impedance stabilization network) and the conducted emissions between 150 kHz and 30 MHz were recorded.

HLK-PM01 - Conducted Emissions - Class B - BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments
HLK-PM01 – Conducted Emissions – Class B – BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

As you can see from the graph Quasi Peak analysis shows that it does not meet the requirements of BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments”, or as most people call it Class B. – Let’s try it with Class A…

HLK-PM01 - Conducted Emissions - Class A - BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments
HLK-PM01 – Conducted Emissions – Class A – BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments

Yep, no it also fails to meet the requirements for BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments” or Class A (And no you can’t claim exemption for IT equipment).

Radiated Emissions

The HLK-PM01 was placed into a cell.

HLK-PM01 in a Laplacell for radiated emissions
HLK-PM01 in a cell for radiated emissions – You can see the 33 Ω resistor

A scan between 80 MHz and 1 GHz was performed in one orientation in respect to the cell (Normally more than one is performed with the cables positioned for the worst case). The emissions recorded were such:

HLK-PM01 - Radiated Emissions - Class A -BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments and Class B - BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments
HLK-PM01 – Radiated Emissions – Class A – BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments and Class B – BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

As you can see the graph shows that the Radiated emissions were below both the Class A and Class B limit lines.

 In closing

While it is not great, I would consider using it on my own projects, however it would need filtering on the mains side if I was going to use it in a project I was going to place on the market (read as sell), as under my control I can keep an eye on it causing unwanted interference with other equipment, this is why we have the limits set in the standards.

I will write a post in a bit where I talk about using this, and a relay to switch mains, where I will cover things like track width, and spacing.

29 thoughts on “Quick look at the HLK-PM01

  1. Thanks for information what we are looking but what we will not find from manufacturer datasheets. I have couple of these modules and I had feeling that additional filtering is needed.

    Do you have already mains filter configuration what with PM01 give emission that is below requirements of european standards?

      1. We have implemented a filter at the mains side of the HLK-PM01 and managed to pass the EMC. I can provide you with the schematic and the official EMC testing screenshot if you are intrested.

        1. Hello! it would be awesome if you send me the schematic for filtering! Please! I’ve been working in a project involving a microcontroller to it and I’ve noticed a slight interference, Help me out here! Email: [email protected]

  2. Hey Skippy,
    How about adding some load regulation and ripple tests? I did some simple tests and found the load regulation to be very good up to 600mA, but I don’t have specific numbers I can give.

  3. Hi, Thanks for sharing this information.
    The Farnell varistor you suggested has Vrms of 275V. And the converter manufacturer spec says the maximum allowed voltage is 270VAC. Does this difference of 5V would damage the unit ???

      1. Ya right. But the case here in India is that, sometimes in few locations the AC grid voltage reaches upto 290V continuously(not surge). Would there be any solution in this case??

  4. Hi, thanks for sharing this article. I would be very interested, as I am sure would a lot of other folks, to read the follow up post you mention above. I have been considering using HLK-PM03 to power an ESP8266 with Relay project and would value your insights. I have found a similar, albeit more expensive, product in Vigortronix VTX-214-003. It looks like it conforms to all the standards you have called out. I do wonder if the additional cost is offset by not having to deal with the shortcomings of the HLK-PM01 hence my interest in the follow up post you mention. Thanks again.

  5. Many thanks for the information, @Skippy! I really enjoyed learning about the interactions of components etc. This post _MADE_ me go reading for a few hours on UL/CSA/CE testing! THANKS! 🙂

    As an unlearned n00b, what kind of filtering would be needed to get this to class A conducted emission levels?

  6. Thanks for your detailed testing of surge & EMC/EMI. Few months back, I was thinking whether to use this SMPS or designing one. I bought a few and they worked fine for prototyping. Now i designed my own PCB mountable SMPS like this one but a dual voltage one with 3.3 & 5V together to have better control and kind of our production.

    Now i will have to test my SMPS in the same way and see the results. I think, I have to depend on some external houses for that.

    Did you get chance to tear this down? I did, but havent tested any parameters.

Leave a Reply to Noel Galer Cancel reply