There is a Follow-up post to this one here.
The Hi-Link HLK PM01 is a 100-230 Vac to 5 Vdc 600 mA converter, Bob gave me one a while ago and asked me what my thoughts were on it,
The Manufacturers details are not quite what I would like as a data sheet, and I can’t find a certificate of conformity. however some of an LVD assessment has been performed on it (looking at their tear down the clearance between Primary and Secondary is greater than the requirement).
From the Manufactures spec:
- Meet UL, CE requirements,
- All voltage input (AC: 90 ~ 264V)
- Low ripple and low noise
- Output overload and short circuit protection
- High efficiency, high power density
- The product is designed to meet the requirements of EMC and Safety Test
- Low power consumption, environmental protection, no-load loss <0.1W
- Operation Temperature: -20 – +60°C
- Store Temperature: -40 – +80°C
- Relative humidity: 5 – 95%
- Rated input voltage:100-240VAc
- Maximum input current: <0.2A
- Input current surge: <10A
- maximum input voltage: 270VAc
- Input Low Voltage Efficiency: Vin=110 VAc, Output full-load: 69%
- Input High Voltage Efficiency: Vin=220 VAc, output full-load: 70%
- Long-term reliability: MTBF 100000 h
- Load rated output voltage: +5±0.1
- Short-term maximum output current: 1000mA
- The maximum output current for a long time: 600mA
- Output ripple and noise: 50 mVpp Rated input voltage, full load. Using 20 MHz of bandwidth, the load side with 10 uF and 0.1 uF capacitor
- Shell maximum surface temperature does not exceed 60 °C
The First line looks impressive, and it’s supposed to, I mean how many people know that that sentence is meaningless! how do you know what the UL, CE requirements it meets if they don’t tell you which standards they applied!
Looking at the unit, and that first line, what would you consider to be the method for use? wire it into the mains and off we go? NO. for starts looking at the GA drawing we can see a problem:
See it? no? the AC input pins are 5 mm apart center to center, which means that it will be difficult to get the required 3 mm clearance between Live and Neutral required for BS EN 60335 – “Household and similar electrical appliances. Safety. General requirements” or any similar standard we wish to use. so right off the bat we have to place some supporting components on the board:
For EMC testing I will be loading the HLK PM01 with a 33 Ω resistor, this equates to 0.75 W or 150 mA. the HLK-PM01 is rated for 600 mA (5 Vdc, 3 W).
I have omitted the recommended 10 µF and 0.1 µF capacitors due to my load being purely resistive, and having no capacitive or inductive components (from the manufacture – Output ripple and noise: 50 mVpp Rated input voltage, full load. Using 20 MHz of bandwidth, the load side with 10uF and 0.1uF capacitor). If I was powering a microprocessor or a Raspberry pi, then things would be different.
The tests I performed on this unit were electrical breakdown between Primary and Secondary, Radiated Emissions, and Conducted Emissions. No Immunity testing was performed.
For this test 3.7 kVac 50 Hz is applied common mode to both the Live and Neutral conductors for 60s, (Standard calls for 3 kVac, however it’s always wise to exceed the standard).
The HLK-PM01 withstood the application of 3.7 kVac for 60 seconds with less than 1 mA leakage current.
The HLK-PM01 was plugged into a LISN (line impedance stabilization network) and the conducted emissions between 150 kHz and 30 MHz were recorded.
As you can see from the graph Quasi Peak analysis shows that it does not meet the requirements of BS EN 61000-6-3:2007+A1:2011 “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments”, or as most people call it Class B. – Let’s try it with Class A…
Yep, no it also fails to meet the requirements for BS EN 61000-6-4:2007+A1:2011 “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments” or Class A (And no you can’t claim exemption for IT equipment).
The HLK-PM01 was placed into a cell.
A scan between 80 MHz and 1 GHz was performed in one orientation in respect to the cell (Normally more than one is performed with the cables positioned for the worst case). The emissions recorded were such:
As you can see the graph shows that the Radiated emissions were below both the Class A and Class B limit lines.
While it is not great, I would consider using it on my own projects, however it would need filtering on the mains side if I was going to use it in a project I was going to place on the market (read as sell), as under my control I can keep an eye on it causing unwanted interference with other equipment, this is why we have the limits set in the standards.
I will write a post in a bit where I talk about using this, and a relay to switch mains, where I will cover things like track width, and spacing.